B You are preparing for a presentation about the characteristics of spices. You have found an article about black and white pepper. You are going to read the article and take notes.

Black and White Pepper

[Part 1] Some recent studies have increased our understanding of the role of spices  in helping us live longer. There are a variety of spices in the world, but most likelly you are familiar with two of them, black and white pepper. Black and white pepper both come from the fruit of the same pepper plant. However, they are procecessed differently. Black pepper is made from the unripe fruit of the pepper plant. Each piece of fruit looks like a small green ball, just 3 to 6 millimeters across. The harvested fruit turns black when it is dried under the sun. Each piece of dried fruit is called a peppercorn. The color of the powered black pepper comes from the skin of the peppercorn. On the other hand, to get white pepper, the pepper fruit is harvested when it is cherry-red. The skin of the fruit is removed before sun-drying. The color of the seed inside the pepper fruit is white. This is how white peppercorns are processed. Because the skin is very thin, the size of black and white peppercorns is similar. White pepper is usually more expensive than black because there are more steps in processing it.

[Part 2]  Where does the flavor of pepper come from? The sharp spicy taste is caused by a natural compound called piperine. Not only the seed but also the outer layer of the peppercorn contains lots of piperine. Therefore, some people say black pepper tastes hotter than white. Black pepper also contains many other substances that make its taste more complex. The unique flavor of black pepper produced by the mixed substances goes well with many kinds of dishes. White pepper’s flavor is often regarded as more refined than that of black pepper, but it is too weak to bring out the flavor of meat dishes such as steak. Thanks to its color, white pepper is often used in light-colored dishes. Mashed potatoes, white sauce, and white fish may look better when they are spiced with white pepper.

[Part 3]  Historically, people have used pepper as a folk medicine. For instance, it was a popular remedy for coughs and colds. The health effect of pepper is partly caused by piperine. Like vitamin C, piperine is a potent antioxidant. This means that, by eating foods including this compound, we may prevent harmful chemical reactions. Furthermore, recent studies have found that pepper reduces the impact of some types of illnesses. All spices that include piperine have this effect on a person’s body. Both black and white pepper have the same health benefits.

Complete the notes by filling in 【 28  】to 【 33 】.

問1 The best headings for Par 1,2, and 3 are 【 28 】, 【 29 】, and 【 30 】, respectively. ( You may use an option only once.)

① The characteristices of pepper as a spice
② The effects of pepper on health
③ The place of origin of black and white pepper
④ The production of black and white pepper

問2 Among the following, the common points and differences decribed in the article are 【 31 】and 【 32 】, respectively. ( You may choose more than one opinion for each box.)

① the amount of vitamin C
② the effect on illnesses
③ the flavor
④ the plant
⑤ the price
⑥ the removal of the skin

問3 This article mainly discusses 【 33 】.

① the advantages and disadvantages of using black and white pepper compared to other spices
② the reason why people started to make black and white pepper, and why they have lost popularity
③ the reason why white pepper is better than black pepper, and why it is better for us
④ the similarities and differences between white and black pepper, and also the health benefits of both





B You are preparing for a presentation about the characteristics of spices. You have found an article about black and white pepper. You are going to read the article and take notes.


さらに、その下に「メモ」があり、【 28 】~【 33 】の空欄に適切な選択肢を選ぶという問題です。



「Part 1, 2, 3 に一番よい見出しは、それぞれ、【 28 】, 【 29 】, 【 30 】です。(それぞれ1つだけの選択肢を選ぶこと。)」となっています。

※【 28 】, 【 29 】, 【 30 】の選択肢は下記の通りです。
① スパイスとしてのコショウの特徴
② 健康へのコショウの影響
③ 黒コショウと白コショウの起源の場所
④ 黒コショウと白コショウの生産


Part 1
Part 2
ーコショウの香りはどこからくるのか。鋭いスパイシーのにおいは、piperine と呼ばれる自然物質によるものです。種のみならずペパーコーンの外側は、piperine をたくさん含んでいます。それ故に、黒コショウが白コショウより辛いという人もいます。黒コショウもより複雑な風味を加えるたくさんの他の物質を含んでいます。様々な物質により作られた黒コショウの独特の香りは、たくさんの種類の料理に合います。白コショウの香りはしばしば黒コショウのものより精製されているとみなされますが、あまりにも香りが弱くて、ステーキのような肉料理の香りを引き出すことができません。その色のおかげで、白コショウはよく色の明るい料理に使われます。マッシュポテト、ホワイト・ソースや白身魚は白コショウで香りづけをすると見栄えがよくなります。
Part 3
ー歴史的には、人々は昔からの薬としてコショウを使っています。例えば、それは、セキやかぜによく利く薬でした。コショウの健康によい効果は、一部 piperine によるものです。ビタミンCと同じように、piperine は解毒剤の効果があるのです。これは、この構成物質を含む食べ物を食べることにより、私たちは害のある化学反応を防ぐ可能性があることを意味します。さらに、最近の研究では、コショウはある種の病気の衝撃を減らすことが分かりました。piperine を含むすべてのスパイスは人の体にこの効果をもたらします。黒コショウも白コショウも同じ健康のよい物質を有しているのです。

Part 1:コショウができるまで
Part 2:コショウの香りと料理
Part 3:コショウと健康、医療について


Part 1【 28 】=④ The production of black and white pepper
Part 2【 29 】= ① The characteristics of pepper as a spice
Part 3【 30 】= ② The effects on pepper on health


「次の中で、記事の中で述べられている共通点と違いは、それぞれ【 31 】と【 32 】です。(それぞれの欄に1つ以上を選んでもよい。)」となっています。

※【 31 】【 32 】に入る選択肢は下記の通りです。
① ビタミンCの量
② 病気への効果
③ 香り
④ 植物
⑤ 値段・価格
⑥ 皮を取り除くこと

・共通点=【 31 】
・違 い=【 32 】

➡それぞれの Part で確認すると、
Part 1:共通点=木が同じ、違い=実の皮を取るか取らないか&黒コショウが高い
Part 2:違い=香り
Part 3:共通点=病気に利く


・共通点【 31 】= ② the effect on health、④ the plant
・違 い【   32 】= ③ the flavor、⑤ the price、⑥ the removal of the skin


「この記事は、主に【 33 】を論じている。」となっています。

※【 33 】に入る選択肢は下記の通りです。
① 他のスパイスと比べての黒コショウと白コショウを使用しての利点と不利な点
② 人々が黒コショウと白コショウを作り始めた理由とその人気がなくなった原因
③ 白コショウが黒コショウよりよくて、私たちにとっても良い理由
④ 白コショウと黒コショウの類似点と相違点、そして両方の健康における良い点



④ the similarities and differences between white and black pepper, and also the health benefits of both  となります。